Aperture - The size of the opening that the light goes through. The aperture of your camera can usually be adjusted. For all these word meaning you can check in your photography manual glossary.
Exposure - The amount of light that your camera is receiving. The picture exposure is determined by the camera's aperture and shutter speed settings.
Focus - How clear items are in your photo. Most cameras come with an auto-focus feature. This is where the camera finds the focus point automatically. Some camera's let you turn off the auto-focus and use a manual focus to find your desired focal point.
Resolution - This term is used for digital photos. Resolution is how many pixels a photo contains. The more pixels the higher the resolution. The higher the resolution, the better quality of the picture. Photos also take up more storage the higher the resolution.Shutter speed - How long the camera exposes the recording material to light. Taking pictures of fast moving objects require a fast shutter speed. Low light objects require slower shutter speeds.
You can find more of your photography glossary word meanings in your owner's manual.